Welcome to the Beer Group! Research in the Beer Group aims to increase understanding of molecular recognition processes in biological systems, leveraging that understanding to produce new molecular sensors, switches and devices.
This is achieved via the synthesis of novel macrocyclic and interlocked hosts which are designed to complex cationic, anionic or neutral guest species, reporting the binding via redox- or photo-active moieties. Designing selective binding of specific guest species is paramount, with anion-templated and halogen bonding-directed motifs particularly being pusued by the group towards this goal.
Explore our website to learn more about ongoing projects in the group and the chemists behind them.
Members of the group with Sir Fraser Stoddart, joint recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2016.
Members of the group with Jean-Pierre Sauvage, joint recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2016.
Inspired by the strong and highly selective binding of sulfate and phosphate anions in nature, achieved via a network of hydrogen bonds buried deeply inside specific proteins, we have pioneered an innovative, strategic anion templation methodology that has significantly advanced the construction of sophisticated hosts containing three dimensional cavities for anion recognition. This method uses anionic species to template the assembly of interpenetrating and interlocked host molecules.
Shown below is our initial anion templated pseudo-rotaxane along with the crystal structure. It can be seen that the assembly of the pseudo-rotaxane occurs through binding of a chloride anion template via hydrogen bonding in an orthogonal manner. Secondary aromatic donor-acceptor π-stacking interactions between the electron-rich hydroquinones of the macrocycle and the electron-deficient pyridinium thread, and hydrogen bonding between the polyether chain and the methyl group of the pyridinium cation also contribute to the stability of the interpenetrative assembly.
The strength of this general anion templation procedure was first illustrated with the chloride anion templated assembly of the first rotaxane and catenane interlocked anion host molecules. An impressive feature of this method of mechanical bond formation is that the resultant interlocked molecular structure retains a degree of functionality based on the anion template itself. After template removal, the unique interlocked cavities of the superstructures exhibit a high degree of selectivity for the templating chloride anion, in preference to competing basic oxoanions, which are too large, with unfavourable geometry to penetrate the binding pocket (see example below). The power of this anion templation methodology has since been exploited with chloride, bromide, sulfate, nitrate and nitrite templated synthesis of a range of rotaxane and catenane host structures containing convergent hydrogen bond donating cavities.
"Expanding the scope of the anion templated synthesis of interlocked structures"
G. T. Spence and P. D. Beer.
Acc. Chem. Res. 2013, 46, 571-586.
"Nitrate anion templated assembly of a rotaxane for selective nitrate recognition in aqueous solvent mixtures"
M. J. Langton, L. C. Duckworth and P. D. Beer.
Chem. Commun. 2013, 49, 8608-8610.
"Chloride anion templated synthesis and crystal structure of a handcuff catenane"
N. H. Evans, C. J. Serpell and P.D. Beer.
Angew. Chem. Int Ed. 2011, 50, 2507-2510.
"Core@shell bimetallic nanoparticle synthesis via anion coordination"
C. J. Serpell, J. Cookson, D. Ozkaya and P.D. Beer.
Nature Chemistry 2011, 3, 478-483.
"Interlocked host anion recognition by an indolocarbazole-containing rotaxane"
A. Brown, K.M. Mullen, J. Rayu, M. J. Chmielewski, S. Santos, A.L. Thompson, J. E. Warren, V. Felix, S. I. Pascu and P.D. Beer.
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 4937-4952.
"Sulfate anion-templated assembly of a catenane"
B. Huang, S.M. Santos, V. Felix and P.D. Beer.
Chem. Commun. 2008, 4610-4612.
"Anion templated double cyclization assembly of a chloride selective catenane"
K-Y. Ng, A.R. Cowley and P.D. Beer.
Chem. Commun. 2006, 3676-3678.
"Anion-templated assembly of pseudorotaxanes: importance of anion template, strength of ion-pair thread association, and macrocycle ring size"
M.R. Sambrook, P.D. Beer, J.A. Wisner, R.L. Paul, A.R. Cowley, F.Szemes and M.G. B. Drew.
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 2292-2302.
"Anion-templated assembly of a catenane"
M.R. Sambrook, P.D. Beer, J.A. Wisner, R.L. Paul and A.R. Cowley.
J. Am Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 15364-15365. (Highlighted in Science, 2004, 306, 1261).
"Anion-templated rotaxane formation"
J.A. Wisner, P.D. Beer, M.G.B. Drew and M.R. Sambrook.
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 12469-12476.
"A demonstration of anion templation and selectivity in pseudorotaxane formation"
J.A, Wisner, P.D. Beer and M.G.B. Drew.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2001, 40, 3606-3609.
A variety of electrochemical and optical reporter groups have been incorporated into interlocked anion host constructs, with the aim of developing sophisticated chemical sensor technologies.
Transition metal and lanthanide luminophores, (see structure below), as well as organic fluorophores have been integrated into either the macrocyclic or axle stoppering components of rotaxanes and catenanes, which have been demonstrated to exhibit highly selective optical sensing of anions in solution.
Electrochemical sensing has been achieved with redox-active ferrocene functionalised rotaxanes and catenanes, in which anion binding caused cathodic perturbations of the ferrocene/ferrocenium redox-couple. In a first step towards the development of practical sensory devices, the anion templation strategy has been applied to the fabrication of redox-active ferrocene and osmium (II) bipyridyl functionalised rotaxane and ferrocene functionalised catenane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on to gold electrode surfaces. The rotaxane SAM interlocked host binding domains were demonstrated to be capable of selectively sensing chloride anions electrochemically.
"Nitrite-templated synthesis of lanthanide-containing rotaxanes for anion sensing"
M. J. Langton, O. A. Blackburn, T. Lang, S. Faulkner and P. D. Beer.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 11463-11466.
"Rotaxane and catenane host structures for sensing charged guest species"
M. J. Langton and P. D. Beer.
Acc. Chem. Res. 2014, 47, 1935-1949.
"Anion sensing by solution- and surface-assembled osmium (II) bipyridyl rotaxanes"
J. Lehr, T. Lang, O. A. Blackburn, T. A. Barendt, S. Faulkner, J. J. Davis and P. D. Beer.
Chem. Eur. J. 2013, 19, 15898-15906.
"Lanthanide appended rotaxanes respond to changing chloride concentration"
C. Allain, P. D. Beer, S. Faulkner, M. W. Jones, A. M. Kenwright, N. L. Kilah, R. C. Knighton, T. J. Sorensen and M. Tropiano.
Chem. Sci. 2013, 4, 489-493.
"Sulfate-selective binding and sensing of a fluorescent rotaxane host system"
M. J. Langton and P. D. Beer.
Chem. Eur. J. 2012, 18, 14406-14412.
"Anion sensing in aqueous media by photo-active transition metal bipyridyl rotaxanes"
L. M. Hancock, E. Marchi, P. Ceroni and P. D. Beer.
Chem. Eur. J. 2012, 18, 11277-11283.
"Solution and surface-confined chloride anion templated redox-active ferrocene catenanes"
N. H. Evans, H. Rahman, A. V. Leontiev, N. D. Greenham, G. A. Orlowski, Q. Zeng, R. M. J. Jacobs, C. J. Serpell, N. L. Kilah, J. J. Davis, P. D. Beer.
Chem. Sci. 2012, 3, 1080-1089.
"A 1, 2, 3, 4, 5-pentaphenylferrocene stoppered rotaxane capable of electrochemical anion recognition"
N. H. Evans, C. J. Serpell, N. G. White and P. D. Beer.
Chem. Eur. J. 2011, 17, 12347-12354.
"A redox-active rotaxane capable of binding and electrochemically sensing chloride and sulfate anions"
N. H. Evans, C. J. Serpell and P. D. Beer.
Chem. Commun. 2011, 47, 8775-8777.
Halogen bonding (XB) is the non-covalent bonding interaction between halogen atoms which function as electrophilic centres (Lewis acids) and neutral or anionic Lewis bases. Of the many non-covalent interactions commonly utilized in solution phase supramolecular assemblies, halogen bonding is arguably the least exploited, which is surprising given its potentially powerful analogy to ubiquitous hydrogen bonding (HB). We have reported the first examples of solution phase halogen bonding being exploited to recognize and sense anions in aqueous media, and to control and facilitate the anion templated assembly of rotaxane and catenane interlocked structures (see figure below), including a molecular shuttle.
Importantly, the incorporation of halogen bond donors into acyclic, macrocyclic, and interlocked host cavities dramatically enhances anion recognition compared to hydrogen bond donor host analogues in aqueous media. For instance, we recently demonstrated the exploitation and quantification of XB in water for the first time using water-soluble acyclic and rotaxane hosts prepared from mono-functionalised permethylated β-cyclodextrin derivatives. Incorporation of XB-donors into such receptors resulted in a dramatic enhancement of anion binding in water compared to the equivalent HB analogues, with up to two orders of magnitude enhancement observed in the interlocked XB rotaxane host system (see figure below).
In collaboration with Professor Pierre Kennepohl (University of British Columbia), we have also investigated the nature of halogen bonds through X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS): these studies revealed charge transfer from the halide to its halogen bonding partner, and demonstrated that the degree of covalency is similar to that which is observed in transition metal coordinate covalent bonds.
These results highlight the superiority of XB as an intermolecular interaction for anion binding in water, and exemplify the exciting potential of XB in other applications requiring molecular assembly in aqueous environments that have been traditionally dominated by the ubiquitous hydrogen bond, including self-assembly, green-chemistry, catalysis and drug discovery.
"Evidence for Halogen Bond Covalency in Acyclic and Interlocked Halogen-Bonding Receptor Anion Recognition"
S. W. Robinson, C. L. Mustoe, N. G. White, A. Brown, A. Thompson, P. Kennepohl, P. D. Beer.
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137(1), 499-507.
"Halogen bonding in water results in enhanced anion recognition in acyclic and rotaxane hosts"
M. J. Langton, S. W. Robinson, I. Marques, V. Felix and P. D. Beer.
Nat.Chem. 2014, 6, 1039-1043.
Cover picture December 2014, featured in Nature Chemistry News and Views: Nat. Chem. 2014, 6, 1029-1031.
"Iodide-induced shuttling of a halogen- and hydrogen-bonding two-station rotaxane"
A. Caballero, L. Swan, F. Zapata and P. D. Beer.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 11854-11858.
"An all-halogen bonding rotaxane for selective sensing of halides in aqueous media"
B. R. Mullaney, A. L. Thompson and P. D. Beer.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 11458-11462. Selected to be featured on inside cover of journal issue.
"A catenane assembled through a single charge-assisted halogen bond"
L. C. Gilday, T. Lang, A. Caballero, P. J. Costa, V. Felix and P. D. Beer.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 4356-4360.
"Fluorescent charge-assisted halogen-bonding macrocyclic halo-imidazolium receptors for anion recognition and sensing in aqueous media"
F. Zapata, A. Caballero, N. G. White, T. D. W. Claridge, P. J. Costa, V. Felix and P. D. Beer.
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 11533-11541.
"A halogen-bonding catenane for anion recognition and sensing"
A. Caballero, F. Zapata, N. G. White, P. J. Costa, V. Felix and P. D. Beer.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 1876-1880.
"A bidentate halogen-bonding bromoimidazoliophane receptor for bromide ion recognition in aqueous media"
A. Caballero, N. G. White and P. D. Beer.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 1845-1848.
"Enhancement of anion recognition exhibited by a halogen-bonding rotaxane host system"
N. L. Kilah, M. D. Wise, C. J. Serpell, A. L. Thompson, N. G. White, K. E. Christensen and P.D. Beer.
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 11893-11895.
"Halogen Bond Anion Templated Assembly of an Imidazolium Pseudorotaxane"
C. J. Serpell, Christopher J.; N. L. Kilah, P. J. Costa, V. Felix, P. D. Beer.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 5322-5326.
Mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) are firmly established entities in the field of nanoscale molecular machines, being able to undergo controlled and reversible molecular motion by changes in the relative positions of their constituent parts. Through careful design, the inherent dynamics of such systems may be governed by a variety of stimuli. Our group explores co-conformational switching mediated by the recognition of anionic species, an underexplored area, as a means of generating detectable responses for use in sensing.
The incorporation of a naphthalimide–triazolium derivative into an axle component produced a bistable rotaxane in which the position of the macrocyclic wheel could be controlled upon cooperative binding of chloride within the rotaxane’s cavity as shown below.
The contrasting halide recognition properties of hydrogen-bonding (HB) proto- and halogen bonding (XB) iodo-triazolium motifs has been used as a basis for a two-station rotaxane molecular switch. In the system below, chloride anion binding resulted in occupation of the HB station whilst macrocycle shuttling to the XB station occurred upon the addition of iodide.
Quantitative analysis of station occupancies has allowed a detailed comparison of the halide-induced translational motion produced by a series of two-station XB- and HB-triazolium–naphthalene diimide rotaxanes (see below). The system incorporating a XB donor anion recognition site was demonstrated to exhibit superior macrocycle shuttling relative to the HB analogue courtesy of strong XB–chloride anion binding interactions.
Through the integration of photo- and/or redox-active reporter groups into two station MIMs, the dynamic co-conformational changes resulting from anion guest recognition can be utilised as a unique mechanism for sensing negatively charge species, shown schematically below.
This concept has been demonstrated with the construction of an exotic XB rotaxane four-station molecular shuttle that is capable of the colorimetric sensing of oxoanions, in particular nitrate, courtesy of novel pincer-like motion of the two macrocycle components that occurs upon binding. Importantly, this is also the only synthetic interlocked receptor capable of selectively recognising the environmentally important nitrate anion over other oxoanion species and chloride.
"Anion-Induced Shuttling of a Naphthalimide Triazolium Rotaxane"
G. T. Spence, M. B. Pitak, P. D. Beer.
Chem. Eur. J. 2012, 18, 7100-7108.
"Iodide-Induced Shuttling of a Halogen- and Hydrogen-bonding Two-Station Rotaxane"
A. Caballero, L. Swan, F. Zapata, P. D. Beer
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 11854-11858.
"Superior Anion-Induced Shuttling Behaviour Exhibited by a Halogen Bonding Two Station Rotaxane"
T. A. Barendt, S. Robinson, P. D. Beer
Chem. Sci. 2016, 7, 5171-5180.
"Selective Nitrate Recognition by a Halogen Bonding Rotaxane Molecular Shuttle"
T. A. Barendt, A. Docker, I. Marques, V. Felix, P. D. Beer
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2016, 55, 11069-11076.
This exciting area of coordination chemistry is concerned with the synthesis of host molecules containing binding sites for anionic and cationic guest species, covalently linked together and fashioned to be selective for target alkali/transition metal salts or zwitterionic guests such as amino acids. The simultaneous binding of toxic/radioactive ion-pair species could make these systems novel extraction reagents for the purification of industrial effluent, soil water and radioactive waste streams.
A recent highlight in this area is the demonstration of an unprecedented cooperative "AND" ion-pair recognition phenomenon in which the heteroditopic calixdiquinone rotaxane-based receptor shown below displays no binding affinity for either individual cation or anion, but binds the cation AND anion ion-pair strongly.
"Axle component separated ion-pair recognition by a neutral heteroditopic rotaxane"
R. C. Knighton and P. D. Beer.
Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 1540-1542.
"Heteroditopic receptors for ion-pair recognition"
A. J. McConnell and P. D. Beer.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 5052-5061.
"Ion-pair recognition by a heteroditopic triazole-containing receptor"
S. C. Picot, B. R. Mullaney and P. D. Beer.
Chem. Eur. J. 2012, 18, 6230-6237.
"Cooperative AND ion-pair recognition by heteroditopic calixdiquinone receptors"
M.D. Lankshear, I.M. Dudley, K-M. Chan, A.R. Cowley, S.M. Santos, V. Felix and P.D. Beer.
Chem. Eur. J. 2008, 14, 2248-2263.
"Ion Pair Co-operative Binding of Potassium Salts by New Rhenium (I) Bipyridine Crown Ether Receptors"
L.H. Uppadine, J.E. Redman, S.W. Dent, M.G.B. Drew and P.D. Beer.
Inorg. Chem. 2001, 40, 2860-2869.
"Cooperative Halide, Perrhenate Anion-Sodium Cation Binding and Pertechnetate Extraction and Transport by a Novel Tripodal Tris(Amido Benzo-15-Crown-5) Ligand"
P.D. Beer, P.K. Hopkins and J.D. McKinney.
Chem. Commun. 1999, 1253-1254.
The dithiocarbamate (dtc) ligand has been exploited in the metal directed assembly of a variety of novel macrocycles, cryptands, catenanes and nano-sized polymetallic host systems. A particular highlight includes the synthesis of nano-sized molecular loops based on a trimer of resorcarene functionalised dtc ligands assembled by six zinc (II) or cadmium (II) ions and tetrahedra constructed by eight copper (II) or copper (III) ions (shown below). The hexanuclear zinc and cadmium "molecular loop" and octanuclear copper "cagelike" polymetallic structures were subsequently found to strongly bind fullerenes C60 and C70.
In addition a mixed valence tetranuclear copper(II)/copper(III) dithiocarbamate catenane was prepared by partial chemical oxidation of a preformed dinuclear copper (II) dtc napthyl spaced macrocycle, where the lability of the copper(II) dtc coordinate bonds together with favourable charge transfer stabilisation effects are responsible for the near quantitative yield of the interlocked structure.
Recently we reported the first lanthanide cation template-directed assembly of an interlocked structure, by preparing lutetium and europium templated rotaxanes. An initial interpenetrated assembly is formed between a pyridine N-oxide threading component coordinating to a lanthanide cation complexed within a macrocycle, and a subsequent "click" stoppering reaction forms the rotaxane interlocked product.
Zapata, F.; Blackburn, O. A.; Langton, M. J.; Faulkner, S.; Beer, Paul D.
"Lanthanide cation-templated synthesis of rotaxanes"
Chemical Communications (2013), 49, 8157-8159.
Fox, O. D.; Cookson, J.; Wilkinson, E. J. S.; Drew, M. G. B.; Maclean, E. J.; Teat, S.J.; Beer, Paul D.
"Nano-sized polymetallic resorcinarene-based host assemblies that strongly bind fullerenes"
Journal of the American Chemical Society (2006), 128, 6990-7002.
Padilla-Tosta, M. E.; Fox, O. D.; Drew, M. G. B; Beer, Paul D.
"Self-assembly of a mixed valence copper(II)-copper(III) dithiocarbamate catenane"
Angewandte Chemie, International Edition (2001), 40, 4235-4239.
Fox, O. D.; Drew, M. G. B.; Beer, Paul D.
"Resorcarene-based nanoarchitectures: metal-directed assembly of a molecular loop and tetrahedron"
Angewandte Chemie, International Edition (2000), 39, 136-140.
Paul Beer obtained a Ph.D from King's College London in 1982 with Dr C. Dennis Hall. After a Royal Society European Postdoctoral Fellowship with Professor J.-M. Lehn and a Demonstratorship at the University of Exeter, he was awarded a Lectureship at the University of Birmingham in 1984. In 1990, he moved to the University of Oxford, where he was made a University Lecturer and Tutorial Fellow at Wadham College, becoming a Professor of Chemistry in 1998. His research interests include coordination and supramolecular chemistry.
Lydia holds a Departmental Lectureship in Inorganic Chemistry and tutors students at St Anne's, Oriel and Wadham Colleges. She joined the Beer Group in 2009 and, following a successful undergraduate research project, she remained to read for the D. Phil. in Inorganic Chemistry, which she completed in 2013. Her research interests include exploiting halogen-bonding for molecular recognition and anion templation. In her free time she enjoys cooking, reading, and supporting Sunderland AFC.
Tim is a Post-Doctoral Junior Research Fellow in Inorganic Chemistry and at the college of Christ Church, Oxford. Following completion of a PhD in 2016, his research interests are focused in the field of Supramolecular Chemistry and more specifically molecular guest sensing, biomedical imaging and molecular machines. Publications on the latter include novel dynamic rotaxanes in which molecular motion may be controlled by anion recognition. Further details on this and other work may also be found here.
Jason is a 4th year D. Phil. from tropical Singapore, having flown 11 megametres across the entire Eurasian continent just to work in the Beer group. After graduating from Imperial College London, having worked on electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction and fluorescent metal nanoclusters, he is still in love with Inorganic Chemistry. An avid fan of Western classical music, his fingers will be found undergoing intensive exercise on the piano keyboard when not covered with nitrile gloves in the lab.
Tom is a 4th year D. Phil. working on the incorporation of transition metals into a variety of interlocked anion-binding host structures, as well as the synthesis of novel anion recognition motifs. Tom joined the Beer group after having previously worked on the synthesis of luminescent nanoparticles in the Pikramenou group at Birmingham. When not scaring more junior group members in the lab, he is a keen musician with a particular interest in chamber music.
Valentine (Rossi) Bunchuay is a 3rd year D. Phil. student from the Kingdom of Thailand and the equally colourful college of Wadham. His research interests include cyclodextrins, crown ethers and dissolving SubaSeals® to make red solutions that definitely do not contain traces of perylene diimide. This year he has been lucky enough to share a fume hood with the well-trained and ubiquitous Part II student, Andrew Docker. Outside of the lab Mr Thailand 2004 enjoys cooking curries and focaccia whilst posting comments on Facebook that always receive more ‘likes’ than Avogadro’s constant.
Hena is a 3rd year D. Phil. student, having carried out her first degree at the University of Nottingham. She has brought with her a love of all things Nando's, becoming a keen archer since her arrival in Oxford.
Sam is a 3rd year D. Phil. working on macrocycle motifs for anion binding and active metal templation. Sam joined the Beer Group after working on dynamic self-assembled supramolecular cage compunds in the Nitschke group at Cambridge. When not swearing at the contents of his fumehood, Sam can be found swearing at his computer screen instead. Sam is the webmaster for the Beer group website, which may bear some relation...
Arseni (on the right) is a 3rd year DPhil student on a joint project with the Smith group, born from his experiences during his 1st year CDT rotations, working on the use of anion binding structures for both anion sensing and organocatalysis. A truly global citizen, he has lived in Russia and Poland, completing his MChem degree at Edinburgh University. Notorious for being almost as taciturn as Paul Dirac and for listening to the most extreme black/death metal.
Grace is a 2nd year D. Phil. having arrived in the Beer group via an undergraduate degree at the University of St Andrews. Having previously worked on dynamic covalent chemistry for the functionalization of gold nanoparticles, she is now the group’s resident expert in the area and is currently working on novel motifs for anion recognition. Outside of the lab, Grace’s love of dancing and music keep her on her toes – quite literally so in her search for Oxford’s best “Lieblich Gedackt!”
Luiza is a 2nd year D. Phil. hailing from Romania, where she completed her BSc working on kinetics. An avid Star Wars fan and metalhead, in her spare time she enjoys learning useless trivia, making memes and petting every cat she sees.
Xiaoxiong, usually known as George, is a 2nd year D. Phil. from Nanjing University in China. He is curious about everything, enjoys his research on supramolecular structures a lot, and is a massive fan of ketchup.
Harry is a 2nd year DPhil fresh from the University of Southampton where he was introduced to the world of supramolecular chemistry in the Kitchen group. These days he spends most of his time building a catalogue of halogen bonding receptors and is often found thundering into action for the LMH 1st XI.
Andrew has returned to the Beer group after a successful Part II project as a 1st year D.Phil. working on anion binding in aqueous media for applications in water remediation.
Robert is a 1st year DPhil student from Germany. He obtained his BSc from Jacobs University Bremen where he worked on various projects in the field of host-guest chemistry in the group of Prof. W. M. Nau. Currently he is working on a joint project with the Jason Davis group on the electrochemical sensing of chemical warfare agents through surface functionalized supramolecular materials. In his spare time Robert plays ultimate frisbee and enjoys wine tasting and formal halls.
Jane is a 1st year DPhil who has trouble explain exactly where she’s from everytime she's asked, so she is on a quest for the most liveable city in the world. Having spent 6 years in sunny Brisbane, Australia she decided to ditch the sunshine for Oxford. She definitely beats Jason, having flown 11 megametres! After working on luminescent materials and big scary lasers in the Moore group at the University of Queensland, Australia, she is now adrift in the lab trying to make new molecules.
Peter is a Part II student investigating fullerene funtionalised halogen-bonding anion-binding hosts. When not in the lab, he spends his time in Oxford involved in church and CU activities as well as splitting eardrums playing piccolo in a university windband and making the most of college's Sky Sports subscription.
After being tutored by Paul, Dan has decided to complete his Part II project with the group. The project focuses on the effect of halogen bonding on anion binding in a -catenane system. Aside from a burning passion for columning, Dan fills his time by rowing and playing the bassoon (unfortunately not at the same time).
Amy is completing her Part II project in the Beer group investigating halogen bonding in rotaxanes for anion recognition. In her spare time she enjoys getting involved in a variety of JCR sports such as football, basketball and cricket.
Neil Berry is a senior lecturer at the University of Liverpool. His principal research interests are in molecular modelling and chemoinformatics in the fields of medicinal chemistry and organic reaction mechanisms.
Nick Fletcher is a senior lecturer at Lancaster University. His principle interests lie in the structural considerations in discrete transition metal complexes, with particular emphasis on their application in sensing within a biological environment. Current research interests include structures to understand the selective binding to phosphates, and enantioselective recognition of biologically important anions, and structural probes to determine secondary structure in DNA.
Phil Gale is Head of Chemistry and Professor of Supramolecular Chemistry at the University of Southampton. His research interests are in the recognition, sensing and lipid bilayer transport of anionic species.
Sue Matthews is a senior lecturer in the School of Pharmacy at the University of East Anglia. Her principle research interests are in the use of supramolecular systems for drug and gene delivery, and in novel bacterial treatments.
Kathleen Mullen is a senior lecturer at the Queensland University of Technology. Her principle research interests are in the creation of molecular electronic devices such as sensors, switches and shuttles.
David Smith is a Professor of Chemistry at the University of York. His research interests are in the synthesis and study of nanoscale architechtures, such as responsive gels and multivalent assemblies.
Dr Nathan Kilah is a senior lecturer at the University of Tasmania. He is interested in the application of halogen bonding for new molecular materials.
Nicholas Evans is a lecturer at Lancaster University. His principle research interests are in the preparation of receptor molecules capable of the recognition of challenging chemical targets such as ion pairs and chiral molecules.
Laura Hancock is a teaching fellow at Keele University. Her principle research interests are in the construction of anion receptors for fluorescent anion sensing.
David Peter Cormode is an assistant professor of radiology at the University of Pennsylvania. His principal research interests are in the development of novel and multifunctional nanoparticle contrast agents for medical imaging applications.
Chris Serpell is a lecturer at the University of Kent. His principal research interests are in the development of sequence polymers for applications such as information storage, biological interfacing and light harvesting, and the design of aquaporin mimics for water purification.
David Curiel is a lecturer at the University of Murcia. His principal research interests are in the areas of supramolecular chemistry and molecular materials such as organic electronics and biocompatible materials.
Nick is a lecturer in the Research School of Chemistry at the Australian National University (in Canberra). His group investigates the synthesis of functional materials prepared by anion templation.
Wallace is an Australian Research Council Future Fellow at the University of Melbourne working on self-organised materials for flexible electronics. He was previously an ARENA Research Fellow (flow synthesis) and lead investigator on organic solar cell projects, collaborating with institutes in Germany and the USA. His group focuses on the design and synthesis of organic materials with applications in light harvesting and solar energy conversion.
George is a Professor of Electrochemical Technologies and Director of the Centre for Sustainable Energy Technologies in the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Nottingham. After a fruitful stay in the Beer Group between 1992 and 1994, he worked in Leeds, Cambridge and Wuhan Universities. His research interests lie in electrochemical technologies and liquid salts innovation for materials, energy and the environment.
Michał is a lecturer at the University of Warsaw. His research team develops metal organic frameworks for catalytic applications as well as novel anion sensors and transporters.
Mark Ogden is a Professor of Chemistry at Curtin University (Western Australia). His principle research interests are in the synthesis and study of lanthanide-containing molecular materials, with more applied research focussed on crystal growth control and inhibition.